What is a computer processor?

“Process” is the root of this word, it directly says that the device itself, the processor, is responsible absolutely for all processes going on in your personal computer, tablet, laptop, and today even in home TV.

When we choose a computer, we pay special attention to the choice of processor. Have you ever wondered why him, and not a video card or motherboard? And everything is simple, the speed and performance of your PC directly depends on the characteristics of this small component, it’s the brain and the heart at the same time. While it is working, the remaining components of the system and all the peripherals connected to it will work. In appearance, there is nothing less than an unremarkable little box, a couple of millimeters thick, but without which even such a simple operation as addition of 2 + 2, or recording of one file, does not happen. What can you say about more complex tasks, such as video processing or game launch?

We can say that in principle, the processor can perform the functions of a video card. All due to the fact that in modern chips there is room for a video controller, which in turn performs all the functions of the video card, and how the memory uses the RAM. Of course, do not think that such models of processors can replace the middle class of video cards, such as GeForce GTX 1050 or, they are perfect for office use, where graphics are not particularly needed, but something weak will pull up) The main advantage of integrated graphics there is a price – decently saving on the fact that you do not need to buy a video card as a separate PC component.

How the processor works

All that is written above about what a processor is and for what processes it is needed. But do you know how it works?

You can submit the work of the CPU in the following order:

  • From the main memory, where a certain program came into operation (for example, a graphic editor), the processor control unit extracts the necessary information, as well as a set of commands that must be completed and completed. All this is sent to the buffer memory (cache) of the CPU;
  • The information coming out of the cache memory is divided into two types: instructions and values that are sent to the registers (this is a kind of memory location in the processor). The first go to the registers of commands, and the second to the data registers;
  • Information from registers is processed by an arithmetic logic device (it is such a part of the processor that is engaged in the calculation and logical conversion of incoming requests). It reads information from them, and then executes the necessary commands over the resulting numbers;
  • The resulting results can be decomposed into finished and unfinished, go to the registers, where the first group is sent to the cache memory of the central processor;
  • At the end of the computation cycle, the end result of the process will be written to your RAM, to free the buffer memory of the processor for new, set operations. But it may also happen that the buffer memory will be full, then all unused and unnecessary files will go into RAM, or generally move to the lower level of the cache.

Types of processors and their main producers

Today, there are a lot of processors, from weak single-core to multi-gaming game giants, in general, drowning in a sea of choice is easy and simple. But, it’s not necessary to get scared early! In fact, there are two tribes of CPUs – all known Intel and AMD. Both companies have been producing the most popular and popular processors for many years, on which almost the world’s performance depends)

The main difference between AMD and Intel products is not the number of cores, but the architecture is the inside of the processor, and each of the competitors offers its own unique structure, its kind of processor, radically different from the opponent.

The products of each of the parties have their pros and cons, I propose to briefly familiarize them with them.

Pros of Intel processors:

  • Low power consumption;
  • Developers are more focused on Intel than on AMD;
  • In games, the performance is higher;
  • The connection of RAM with Intel processors is better – than with AMD;
  • Operations that go through only one task, for example, some media player, also go much better.

The disadvantages of Intel processors:

  • The main disadvantage is the cost of the product;
  • If you use two or more demanding programs, CPU performance is significantly reduced;
  • Embedded graphics chips lose AMD

Pros of AMD processors:

  • The biggest plus – the biggest minus of Intel – is the price.
  • Adequate quality-price ratio;
  • Ensure high-quality operation of the system;
  • Ability to overclock the processor, thereby increasing its power by 10-20%;
  • Integrated graphics cores outperform Intel.
  • The disadvantages of AMD processors:
  • The interaction of RAM with the processor is worse;
  • Higher power consumption;
  • Operation on the second and third level of the buffer memory is at a lower frequency;
  • The performance of the processor in games lags behind the performance of Intel.

But despite all the above pluses and minuses, both manufacturers strive to keep pace with the times, each time improved their processors, making them more powerful and working on past mistakes.

Main characteristics of the processors

By all that is written above, it is already clear what a processor is and what it eats, what are the two main types of them there. Now a couple of words in the order of the queue, what to look for when choosing, briefly about the characteristics of the processor:

  • Brand (manufacturer). We already know that their choice is not great, only two, but the cost and performance of the processor will directly depend on this factor.
  • This is what the CPU itself consists of, so to say its “stuffing”. Each separate processor has its own unique architecture.
  • Support for the socket. One of the main characteristics when choosing. A socket is a “socket” in the motherboard, where the central processor is actually located. It turns out, you need to first buy a motherboard, know what its socket is, and already choose a processor for it, or vice versa, that there is a more correct selection.
  • Number of Cores. Maybe from one to 24, and accordingly the name emerges from this indicator dual-core, four-core, etc. This characteristic determines the power of the CPU
  • Cache, or buffer memory. It is installed directly into the processor, has two levels – the upper one (it receives the active information) and the lower one (contains the necessary information at the moment). These processes are described in detail in our article.

  • Clock frequency. Despite its intricate name, the essence of this process has been explained – this is the volume of operations performed per unit time, measured in megahertz (MHz).
  • Integrated graphics. The characteristic on which the quality of games, films, video viewing on the Internet and images depends. Development, which allows to refuse the purchase of a full-fledged video card, which means saving! But how good is it to cope with its functions? If so, then the popularity of video cards would have come to naught.
  • Heat dissipation and power consumption. The higher the energy consumption, the more heat is released. This is a very important point, which should be given due attention, choose a high-quality cooling system and power supply.

When choosing a central processor, remember – this is the heart and soul of your computer.

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